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Baars, E.W. 2012. A mixed-method approach in reviewing the effects, safety and working principles of Citrus/Cydonia on hay fever. European Journal of Integrative Medicine. 4(1):70.

Number of pages: 1

DOI: 10.1016/j.eujim.2012.07.636

Type of document: Journal Article

More information on authors/freelancers connected to LBI :
Erik W. Baars, M.D., MSc Epidemiology


Language of document: English

Title in English: A mixed-method approach in reviewing the effects, safety and working principles of Citrus/Cydonia on hay fever

Abstract / summary in English:

Causal claims require both difference-making (e.g., probabilistic) evidence, mechanistic evidence. A review of the literature on the effects, safety and working principles of Citrus and Cydonia in the treatment of hay fever demonstrated different sources of evidence: studies on clinical experiences, immunological in vitro studies, animal studies, reviews on bio-activity of compounds (two), case studies (>60) and epidemiological studies. A mixed-method approach on four levels was used to review the total body of evidence. On the first level, the results on effects and safety on different levels and from different sources were combined (systematic review, meta-analysis and triangulation of sources). On the second level results of Goethean phenomenological studies, anthroposophic spiritual science and immunological studies were combined and integrated (working principle analysis). On the third level, the results of the working principle analyses were integrated within a higher-order conceptual framework by positioning all the results within the concepts of health promotion and fighting disease (epistemological positioning of the working principle). Finally, all the both difference-making and mechanistic evidence were processed by means of the GRADE classification of evidence and recommendation (GRADE classification). Summarising the conclusions of the review on Citrus and Cydonia in the treatment of hay fever: (1) there is moderate evidence of the effect of the treatment, (2) it is a very safe treatment, (3) Citrus and Cydonia inhibit the chronic inflammatory reaction and the overproduction of Th2 pathway cytokines and promote the self-regulation of the immunological subsystem and (4) the working principle of the treatment can be regarded as a curative health promotion treatment.


Keywords in English: Seasonal Allergic Rhinitis, Citrus, Cydonia
A mixed-method approach in reviewing the effects, safety and working principles of Citrus/Cydonia on hay fever